BSC2347 / BSC 2347 Final Exam (Latest 2021 / 2022): Human Anatomy & Physiology II - Rasmussen | Qwivy
BSC2347 / BSC 2347 Final Exam (Latest 2021 / 2022): Human Anatomy & Physiology II - Rasmussen | Qwivy

BSC 2347 Human Anatomy & Physiology II

A&P II Final Exam - Rasmussen

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Identify & describe the ABO & Rh factor blood type groups

- Type A: contains anti-B antibodies

Type B: contains anti-A antibodies

Type O: contains anti-A & anti-B antibodies

Rh: + or -

Crucial to give correct ABO Crucial to only give Rh- patients Rh- blood

What can happen if Rh- mom gives birth to Rh+ baby?

- Mom/fetal blood don't mix during pregnancy, but during birth blood can

mix, introducing Rh antibodies into mom's body. Not a problem unless mom

becomes preg w/another Rh+ baby. Anti-Rh antibodies can pass through

placenta & attack fetal RBCs, causing erythroblastosis fetalis (a severe

hemolytic anemia)

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Describe hemostasis process

- vascular spasm --> platelet plug formation --> coagulation

Components involved that influence hemostasis process

- After vascular spasm, thrombocytes form a plug to seal break in vessel

(temporary solution). Fibrin threads reinforce platelet plug. Prothrombin is

converted into thrombin that activates fibrinogen into insoluble fibrin

threads, forming fibrin mesh. 


- abnormal, unwanted clot formation in undamaged vessel - very dangerous -

typically in lower leg vein


- when portion or all of thrombus breaks away and travels - lodges in smaller

blood vessel and blocks flow (DVT, PE)

Bleeding disorders: hemophilia

- hereditary group of disorders involving inability to produce enough of one of

the clotting factors

Bleeding disorders: thrombocytopenia

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- deficient number of platelets in circulation, number of causes, including


Bleeding disorders: impaired liver function

- liver produces majority of clotting factors, if impaired can decrease

production of clotting factors

Function of the heart

- pumps blood to the body

Pericardium anatomy & function

- Double layer of connective tissue surrounding heart - provides protection &

a frictionless environment - outer layer called fibrous pericardium - inner

layer called serious pericardium (parietal & visceral layers) 

Track the flow of blood through the heart

vena cava > right atrium > tricuspid valve > right ventricle > pulmonary semilunar

valve > pulmonary artery > lungs > pulmonary vein > left atrium > bicuspid

(mitral) valve > left ventricle > aortic semilunar valve > aorta > body

Identify the layers of the heart and their function (inner to outer)

- 1) endocardium - lines chambers, covers valves, thin layer of squamous

epithelial cells

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2) myocardium - cardiac muscle, thickest of the 3 layers, does the work

3) epicardium - thin layer of squamous epithelial cells, covers heart's surface

Compare/contrast systemic & pulmonary circuits

- systemic circuit: right side receives deoxygenated blood & pumps to


pulmonary circuit: left side receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and

pumps it out to the body

Identify the anatomical features of cardiac muscle & describe their role

- cylindrical, striated, organized in sarcomeres that are bracketed by Z discs,

where the T tubules extend into the cells. Intercalated discs help to contract

as a whole instead of as individual fibers. Lots of mitochondria. Single

nucleus. Branch freely/interwoven. 


- study of blood


- cessation of bleeding

Hemostasis depends on

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- thrombocytes, fibrinogen, clotting factors

Components of blood

- formed elements, plasma

General function of formed elements in blood

- transportation, immunity, clotting

5 types of leukocytes -

granulocyte or agranulocyte?

- neutrophils - granulocytes

basophils - granulocytes

eosinophils - granulocytes

lymphocytes - agranulocytes

monocytes - agranulocytes

(memory tip: granulocytes end in "phil" and agranulocytes end in "cyte")

What % of leukocytes are neutrophils?


- 50-70%

respond to almost any infection, also to inflammation 

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